Il kampfgruppe Weber ripresa l'avanzata il 21 gennaio 1943 verso Pichon ("operazione Eilbote II") ma, dopo qualche successo, questa volta i tedeschi furono fermati dall'intervento della 36ª brigata britannica e del Combat Command B della 1ª Divisione corazzata statunitense al comando del colonnello Robinett; combattimenti dall'esito alterno continuarono fino al 27 gennaio quando i tedeschi, in inferiorità numerica, rinunciarono ad attaccare Pichon e ripiegarono verso est[17][18]. Durante la conferenza di Casablanca i dirigenti anglosassoni avevano deciso di intensificare le operazioni per ottenere la vittoria finale e l'occupazione di tutta la costa nordafricana entro il 15 maggio 1943; a questo scopo venne deciso di riorganizzare completamente la struttura di comando costituendo un "comando supremo alleato" (Allied Force Headquarters, o AHFQ), affidato al generale Eisenhower, responsabile di tutte le forze presenti nel teatro africano e mediterraneo, da cui sarebbe dipeso il 18º Gruppo d'armate che avrebbe diretto le operazioni in Tunisia delle forze terrestri britanniche, americane e francesi inquadrate nella 1ª Armata del generale Anderson e nella 8ª Armata del generale Montgomery. [11], Once operations had commenced and despite clear intelligence reports regarding the Axis reaction, the Allies were slow to respond and it was not until nearly two weeks after the landings that air and naval plans were made to interdict Axis sea transport to Tunis. [52], By 1pm on 21 February, Battlegroup von Broich was in contact with the dug-in 26th Armoured Brigade Group on the Thala road and making slow progress. Commanders were reminded that large units should be kept concentrated to ensure mass on the battlefield, rather than widely dispersed as Fredendall had deployed them. Close air support had also been weak (although this had been hampered by the generally poor weather conditions). By 18 April, after attacks by Eighth Army from the south and flanking attacks by IX Corps and French XIX Corps, the Axis forces had been pushed into a defensive line on the north-east coast of Tunis, attempting to protect their supply lines but with little hope of continuing the battle for long. New forward airfields were built to improve air support. Coningham found that the air organisation in Tunisia was that of the Western Desert in 1941 when he had first assumed command of the Desert Air Force. [82] On 8 May, the 334th Division surrendered to the British forces between Mateur and Tebourba. De Gaulle quickly eclipsed Giraud, who openly disliked political responsibility and more or less willingly from then on deferred to the Leader of the Free French. [84] Messe, commander of the 1st Army, held the line north of Takrouna and on 12 May, cabled Comando Supremo vowing to fight on; at 7:55 p.m. that evening, after the German collapse, Mussolini ordered Messe to surrender. British destroyers operating from Malta prevented marine supply, reinforcement or evacuation of Tunisia by sea (Operation Retribution). Questo piano tuttavia non venne mai messo in pratica; il comando alleato non era ben organizzato e non esisteva una direzione unica di tutte le truppe terrestri. Nick Force had taken a heavy beating and did not expect to be able to hold out the next day. In the south was the US II Corps (Major General Lloyd Fredendall), consisting of the 1st and 34th Infantry Divisions and the 1st Armored Division (although the 34th Division was attached to the British IX Corps to the north). Arnim became commander of Army Group Africa. G. Di Feo, Sicilia 1943, l’ordine di Patton: «Uccidete i prigionieri italiani», «Corriere della Sera», 23 giugno 2004 Periodico «Limen», n° I, gennaio/giugno 2005, Testimonianza di Raffaele Cristani, ultimo testimone della battaglia di Gela. On 19 November Nehring demanded passage for his forces across the bridge at Medjez and was refused by Barré. Il 1º febbraio, dopo una strenua resistenza, i francesi dovettero abbandonare la posizione e i panzer tedeschi occuparono passo Faid, che dava accesso alla vallata a ovest della Dorsale orientale; reparti americani della 1ª Divisione corazzata accorsero in sostegno ma non cercarono di contrattaccare e si schierarono intorno a Sidi Bou Zid[20]. In July 1942, the Allies discussed relatively small-scale amphibious operations to land in northern France during 1942 (Operation Sledgehammer, which was the forerunner of Operation Roundup, the main landings in 1943), but agreed that these operations were impractical and should be deferred. [46], After further discussion, the Comando Supremo issued orders on 19 February for Rommel to attack through the Kasserine and Sbiba passes toward Thala and Le Kef to threaten First Army's flank. [4] Instead it was agreed that landings would be made to secure the Vichy territories in North Africa (Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia) and then to thrust east to take the Axis forces in the Western Desert in their rear. Filmato sul D-Day (7.63 MB, dal sito The Great Crusade) D-DAY Sito interattivo sullo sbarco in Normandia, ricco di immagini [41] The westward thrust against the right wing of the British V Corps at Bou Arada had little success but further south his attack against French positions around the "hinge" of the Western and Eastern Dorsals succeeded, advancing 56 km (35 mi) south to Ousseltia and 40 km (25 mi) south-west to Robaa. The first two years of the war in North Africa were characterized by chronic supply shortages and transport problems. Rommel's original proposal was for a limited but concentrated attack through Kasserine to confront II Corps' strength at Tébessa and gain vital supplies from the US dumps there. Anche tra le forze navali il pedaggio fu alto, tra le unità di scorta non meno che tra i mercantili. "The Hinges of Fate: The Second World War, Volume IV". [57] The Axis forces from Kasserine reached the Mareth line on 25 February. The Tunisian campaign (also known as the Battle of Tunisia) was a series of battles that took place in Tunisia during the North African campaign of the Second World War, between Axis and Allied forces. Tra il 10 e il 12 luglio del 1943 un uragano di fuoco si abbatté su Gela e su tutta la costa della Sicilia sud orientale. The 21st Panzer battlegroup at Sbiba was making no progress. Surprisingly, Rommel told Broich to regroup and assume a defensive posture, so surrendering the initiative.[54]. By this time, the Axis had deployed a corps in Tunisia and outnumbered the Allies there in almost all ways. [91], The Luftwaffe lost 2,422+ aircraft in the Mediterranean theatre from November 1942 – May 1943 (41 percent of the Luftwaffe). Nel febbraio del 1943, durante la Campagna di Tunisia, al passo di Kasserine si svolse quella che fu una battaglia tra parte dell'Afrika Korps di Rommel e elementi del Secondo Corpo d'Armata USA al comando del Generale Fredentall. Il generale Giraud si incontrò con il generale Eisenhower a Gibilterra solo il 7 novembre; egli apprese che lo sbarco avrebbe avuto luogo il giorno seguente e che egli non avrebbe affatto assunto il comando supremo delle forze alleate. Nel frattempo anche le forze italiane andavano incontro a un progressivo disfacimento e il 13 maggio il generale Messe ordinò di arrendersi (dopo che i tedeschi si erano già arresi). Panzer-Division poté riprendere l'iniziativa contrattaccando ferocemente le avanguardie americane: i Bersaglieri del 7º Reggimento assalirono le posizioni, ricacciando le forze americane dalle pendici est del colle Djebel Berda e avanzando 10 chilometri. American casualties amounted to 18,221 men; 2,715 killed, 8,978 wounded and 6,528 missing. In Operation Frühlingswind ("spring wind"), Arnim ordered four armoured battle groups forward on 14 February in the area of Sidi Bou Zid held by 34th Infantry Division's 168th Regimental Combat Team and 1st Armored Division's Combat Command A. Istanza di: battaglia: Parte di: prima guerra punica: Luogo: Tunisi, governatorato di Tunisi, Tunisia : Data: 255 a.C. (dichiarazione con data gregoriana precedente al 1584) 36° 48′ 00″ N, 10° 10′ 12″ E The Luftwaffe, happy to have local air superiority while Allied planes had to fly from relatively distant bases in Algeria, harassed them all the way. Il 15 e il 16 novembre i paracadutisti americani del colonnello Edson Raff furono lanciati su Tébessa, da dove proseguirono subito su Gafsa mentre le avanguardie britanniche raggiunsero Jendouba e Tabarka; il 24 novembre una audace puntata di una colonna americana con carri leggeri M3 "Stuart" sbucò sulla pista d'aviazione di Djedeida, meno di 20 chilometri da Tunisi, distruggendo numerosi aerei. Frontal attacks by the GMC and Stuarts were ineffective losing 12 tanks, but allowed a rear attack by B Squadron firing into the weaker rear armour of the German tanks. In risposta l'operazione Pugilist avrebbe sfondato la linea del Mareth costringendo le forze dell'Asse ad arretrare dapprima sull'Akarit e poi verso la linea di Enfidaville, sotto la spinta coordinata delle forze Alleate da est e da ovest. By 15 February, CCA had been severely damaged leaving the infantry units isolated on hilltops. The French military commander in Tunisia, General Barré, moved troops into the western mountains of Tunisia and formed a defensive line from Tebersouk through Majaz al Bab (Medjez el Bab). [95] From 27 December 1942 to 17 January 1943 the RAF flew 3,160 sorties and lost 38 aircraft while the USAAF flew an estimated 3,200 sorties and lost 36 aeroplanes. La serie di dure sconfitte causò preoccupazione negli alti comandi alleati, che ritennero necessario prendere provvedimenti radicali per migliorare la situazione. The Allied force initially withdrew roughly 9.7 km (6 mi) to the high positions of Longstop Hill (Djebel el Ahmera) and Bou Aoukaz on each side of the river. [94] From 13 to 26 December, the RAF flew 1,940 sorties for a loss of at least 20 aeroplanes while the USAAF conducted 720 sorties for a loss of 16 aircraft. La battaglia di El-Alamein; La campagna di Tunisia; I Ragazzi di Bir El Gobi; Lo scontro navale di Punta Stilo. Page 697, quoting a telegram from General Alexander on 12 May 1943: "It appears that we have taken over 1,000 guns, of which 180 are, pushed them all the way back to El Alamein, British First Army order of battle, 20 April 1943, British First Army order of battle, 4 May 1943, Military history of Italy during World War II, I Was There! [20] Two days later, an airlift began that carried over 15,000 men and 581 long tons (590 t) of supplies and ships brought 176 tanks, 131 artillery pieces, 1,152 vehicles and 13,000 long tons (13,000 t) of supplies. The 4th Infantry Division joined the fighting, taking position on the left of the 78th Division and pushing toward Sidi Nsir.[76]. Panzer-Division aggirarono le truppe americane da nord, mentre altri due kampfgruppen della 21. Dopo lunghe discussioni e forti contrasti tra i dirigenti delle due potenze, infine il Presidente statunitense Franklin Roosevelt diede il suo consenso nonostante la persistente ostilità dei principali generali americani, soprattutto per la sua volontà di dare la priorità alla sconfitta della Germania nazista e per il suo desiderio di far entrare in campo il prima possibile le truppe americane. La campagna di Tunisia si combatté, durante la seconda guerra mondiale, tra le forze alleate anglo-americane e quelle italo-tedesche e segnò la fase finale delle lunga campagna del Nordafrica, iniziata nell'estate 1940 e proseguita con alterne vicende fino al 13 maggio 1943. [99] From 22 April to the end of the campaign, 45 bombers and 110 fighters were lost; 12 bombers and 47 fighters of the RAF, the USAAF losing 32 bombers and 63 fighters, while the French lost 1 bomber. L'andamento disastroso per gli alleati delle operazioni in Nordafrica all'inizio del 1942 aveva tuttavia costretto i capi anglosassoni a rinunciare sia all'operazione Acrobat, il previsto attacco alla Tripolitania da parte dell'Ottava armata britannica e soprattutto all'operazione Super-Gymnast che era stata stabilita inizialmente per il 15 aprile 1942. In four days, it succeeded in recapturing all lost ground and took 850 German and Italian prisoners. [98] Between 29 March and 21 April, 203 Allied aircraft were destroyed. La battaglia di Makin fu combattuta il 20-24 novembre 1943, durante seconda guerra mondiale (1939-1945). Nehring, considered by most to be an excellent commander, had continually infuriated his superiors with outspoken critiques. [43] Several counterattacks were organised, including a belated attack by Combat Command B of the US 1st Armored Division but all of these were beaten off with ease by Arnim's forces which by this time had created strong defensive positions. The Hermann Göring Division supported by tanks from 10th Panzer Division penetrated up to 5 miles (8.0 km) at some points but could not force a general withdrawal and eventually returned to their lines. Rommel remained convinced that US forces posed little threat, while the British and Commonwealth troops were his equal. However, on 27 November the Germans attacked in strength. Advanced guards of the 36th Infantry Brigade reached Tebarka on 15 November and Djebel Abiod on 18 November, where they met Axis forces. [77] The V Corps attack began on the evening of 22 April and the US II Corps launched their offensive in the early hours of 23 April in the Battle of Hill 609, in which the hill was captured, which opened the way to Bizerte. [35] It was not until June 1943 that the French Committee of National Liberation (CFLN) was formed under the joint chairmanship of Giraud and de Gaulle. [91][92], From 22 to 30 November 1942, the RAF flew 1,710 sorties and lost at least 45 aircraft. Finding no support for his ideas, he travelled on 10 March to see Hitler at his headquarters in Ukraine, to try to convince him to abandon Tunisia and return the Axis armies to Europe. Stessa sorte tocca nei giorni successivi agli altri centri della costa come Susa, Biserta e la stessa Tunisi, il cui porto è reso inutilizzabile. [31] On 29 November, Combat Command B of US 1st Armored Division had concentrated forward for an attack in conjunction with Blade Force planned for 2 December. Il comando operativo delle forze italo-tedesche passò nelle mani del generale Hans-Jürgen von Arnim. Soprattutto negli ultimi mesi di guerra il trasporto veloce di truppe e materiali sulla cosiddetta "rotta della morte"[27] vide impegnate quasi incessantemente in particolare le unità ancora efficienti della classe Navigatori: nuove truppe venivano fatte affluire in Tunisia per alimentare la resistenza mentre reduci e prigionieri venivano riportati in Italia in un continuo andirivieni. in Tunisia, che portò alla resa della 5a Armata corazzata tedesca del ... LA BATTAGLIA DI GELA 10 - 11 LUGLIO 1943, DUE GIORNI VISSUTI DA EROI 36 del Tenente Colonnello Giovanni Iacono in servizio presso il Comando per la Formazione, Specializzazione e Dottrina dell’Esercito ... Storia. Panzerarmee. [39] Arnim did the same and on 18 January, launched Operation Eilbote I ("Courier I"). The two Allied columns concentrated at Djebel Abiod and Béja, preparing for an assault on 24 November. Because of the nearness of Sicily to Tunisia, the Allies expected that the Axis would move to occupy the country as soon as they heard of the Torch landings. - How Von Arnim Surrendered at Last, United States Army Center of Military History, "Official despatch by Kenneth Anderson, GOC-in-C First Army covering events in NW Africa, 8 November 1942 – 13 May 1943", The Green Howards Regimental History, – Bill Cheall's Story, The Irish Brigade: 38th (Irish) Brigade at Bou Arada and Medjez el-Bab, January–April 1943, Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany, Rape during the Soviet occupation of Poland, Battambang and Sisophon (Cambodia) A determined counter-attack by 15th Panzer Division and the Giovani Fascisti ("Young Fascists") Division on 22 March, recaptured much of the bridgehead. The northern flank of Weber's corps was to be protected by the Manteuffel Division[nb 6] advancing west (Operation Ausladung) and forcing the Allies out of their advanced positions opposite Green Hill and the Axis-held Jefna Station.[69]. Nel febbraio del 1943, durante la Campagna di Tunisia, al passo di Kasserine si svolse quella che fu una battaglia tra parte dell’Afrika Korps di Rommel e elementi del Secondo Corpo d’Armata USA al comando del Generale Fredentall. La campagna di Tunisia si combatté, durante la seconda guerra mondiale, tra le forze alleate anglo-americane e quelle italo-tedesche e segnò la fase finale delle lunga … Blade Force passed through Sidi Nsir to reach the Chouigui Pass, north of Terbourba part of B Squadren Stuart's from Blade Force infiltrated behind Axis lines to the newly activated airbase at Djedeida in the afternoon and destroyed more than 20 Axis planes but lacking infantry support, withdrew to Chouigui. [21][23] Some Vichy French forces, such as Barré's, joined the Allies. Even the US defeat at Kasserine may have been paradoxically advantageous; Rommel and the Axis were lulled into a false impression of US capabilities, while the Americans learned valuable lessons, and made positive changes in their command structure and tactics.[88]. With the arrival of the German Afrika Korps, the Axis counter-attacked in Operation Sonnenblume and in April 1941 reached the limit of their supply capacity at the Egyptian border but failed to recapture Tobruk. The main offensive, Ochsenkopf led to fierce fighting - Kampfgruppe Lang attacking in the northern sector were held up by a small force of artillery and a battalion of the Hampshire Regiment for a whole day at Sidi Nsir and Hampshire Farm before they could be overcome. In questo modo furono occupate le posizioni strategiche essenziali per l'avanzata finale direttamente su Tunisi e Biserta[8]. The reorganised US II Corps advanced from the passes again and got behind the Axis lines; the 10th Panzer Division counter-attacked at the Battle of El Guettar on 23 March. In grim hand-to hand fighting against the Hermann Göring Division, 334th Infantry and 15th Panzer Divisions, it took V Corps with the 1st, 4th and 78th Infantry Divisions, supported by army tanks and heavy artillery concentrations, eight days to penetrate 9.7 km (6 mi) and capture most of the Axis defensive positions.