initial estimate of Ramón Salas Larrazábal. [397], Many killings were done by paseos, impromptu death squads that emerged as a spontaneous practice amongst revolutionary activists in Republican areas. including war-related executions until 1961, death above average due to illness etc., Salas Larrazabal, Ramón (1977). French Prime Minister Léon Blum was sympathetic to the republic,[225] fearing that the success of Nationalist forces in Spain would result in the creation of an ally state of Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy, an alliance that would nearly encircle France. Thus, when the coup occurred, officers who joined the rebellion, particularly from Franco's rank downwards, were often africanistas, while senior officers and those in non-front line positions tended to oppose it (though a small number of senior africanistas opposed the coup as well). The Spanish civil war. [364] However, during the war, executions declined as the Francoist state began to establish itself. approximate, excluding post-war terror; Hepworth, Andrea (2017). [79], Prime Minister Santiago Casares Quiroga ignored warnings of a military conspiracy involving several generals, who decided that the government had to be replaced to prevent the dissolution of Spain. Labor Archives of Washington, University of Washington Libraries Special Collections. [395] Michael Seidman argues that the hatred of the Republicans for the clergy was in excess of anything else; while local revolutionaries might spare the lives of the rich and right-wingers, they seldom offered the same to priests. [168] The Royal Italian Navy (Italian: Regia Marina) played a substantial role in the Mediterranean blockade, and ultimately Italy supplied machine guns, artillery, aircraft, tankettes, the Aviazione Legionaria, and the Corpo Truppe Volontarie (CTV) to the Nationalist cause. On 5 March 1939 the Republican army, led by the Colonel Segismundo Casado and the politician Julián Besteiro, rose against the prime minister Juan Negrín and formed the National Defence Council (Consejo Nacional de Defensa or CND) to negotiate a peace deal. Available online At the library. in the mid-1930s the Spanish GDP was 23% of the British one, 37% of the French one and 48% of the Italian one, see e.g. [294], Hundreds of thousands of Republicans fled abroad, with some 500,000 fleeing to France. Following the fall without resistance of Barcelona in January 1939, the Francoist regime was recognised by France and the United Kingdom in February 1939. 600,000 killed during the war + 100,000 executed afterwards, Tucker, Spencer C. (2016). 11. Inizio ALZAMIENTO. It makes the reader is easy to know the meaning of the contentof this book. This was because during Spain's North African campaigns, the traditional promotion by seniority was suspended in favor of promotion by merit through battlefield heroism. [note 9] Instead, they claim that the Republicans failed to translate their resources into military victory largely because of constraints of the international non-intervention agreement; they were forced to spend in excess of market prices and accept goods of lower quality. [193], Romanian volunteers were led by Ion Moța, deputy-leader of the Iron Guard ("Legion of the Archangel Michael"), whose group of Seven Legionaries visited Spain in December 1936 to ally their movement with the Nationalists. [424] These deaths were not only due to combat, but also executions, which were especially well-organised and systematic on the Nationalist side, being more disorganised on the Republican side (mainly caused by loss of control of the armed masses by the government). Rate this tile. Die Premium Access-Vereinbarung Ihres Teams läuft bald ab. (ed., 2008). [152] Articles 24 and 26 of the 1931 constitution had banned the Society of Jesus. The Basques retreated. In the Nationalist zone it grew steadily and in the 2nd half of 1938 it was 214% of the figure from the 2nd half of 1936. The right and the Catholics supported the Nationalists to stop the spread of Bolshevism. Ageod's Espana 1936. [116] General Goded surrendered in Barcelona and was later condemned to death. [185] The pact proved to be a decisive instrument in keeping the Iberian Peninsula out of Hitler's continental system. [400] Fake justice was sought through commissions, named checas after the Soviet secret police organization. [99] Stanley Payne claims that before these events, the idea of rebellion by army officers against the government had weakened; Mola had estimated that only 12% of officers reliably supported the coup and at one point considered fleeing the country for fear he was already compromised, and had to be convinced to remain by his co-conspirators. Madrid. [69] Landowners taunted workers by saying that if they went hungry, they should "Go eat Republic! There are so many people have been read this book. [32] At this time, the Second Spanish Republic was formed. La guerra civile spagnola, vinta storicamente dal caudillo Francisco Franco, fu umanamente persa da tutti, nessuno escluso: Franco, gli anarchici, la Chiesa, i comunisti, i fascisti, i socialisti, la Francia, l'Inghilterra, i trotzkisti, l'Italia fascista, l'Italia antifascista, la Germania, l'Urss, la borghesia, la religione, ecc. Historian Stanley Payne suggests that this view is an incorrect summary of the geopolitic position of the interwar period, arguing that the international alliance that was created in December 1941, once the United States entered the Second World War, was politically much broader than the Spanish Popular Front. However, the end of the Civil War and later the Second World War saw the isolation of the country from most other nations until the 1950s, in which the American anti-Communist international policy favoured having a far-right and extremely anti-communist ally in Europe.[430]. … Essa servì da esercitazione per le forze dell'Asse, e fu teatro di scontro tra le principali ideologie politiche che esistevano allora in Europa: il fascismo, la democrazia liberale e i vari movimenti rivoluzionari (socialisti, comunisti e anarchici). Studi Interculturali 18 (2, 2019) Pier Francesco Zarcone: La II Repubblica spagnola nella guerra civile Ana Cecilia Prenz Kopušar: Marcos Antonio Kappus y Eusebio Kino, dos jesuitas centroeuropeos en Nueva España entre descubrimientos geográficos y globalización Ottavio Di Grazia: Ebraismo […] Leggi tutto. This page was last edited on 31 December 2018, at 09:29. 6 (2016): 965–988. [132], The armies kept growing. Cartamoneta - Guerra civile spagnola. The attempted suppression of imported material was largely ineffective, and France was especially accused of allowing large shipments to Republican troops. Rate this tile. One historical estimate suggests that there were some 87,000 troops loyal to the government and some 77,000 joining the insurgency,[129] though some historians suggest that the Nationalist figure should be revised upwards and that it probably amounted to some 95,000. [273] According to Basque sources, some 22,000 Basques were murdered by Nationalists immediately after the Civil War. Quick action by either the rebels or anarchist militias was often enough to decide the fate of a town. It included strong provisions enforcing a broad secularisation of the Catholic country, which included the abolishing of Catholic schools and charities, which many moderate committed Catholics opposed. when referring reported calculations of Hugh Thomas and divided into 320,000 KIA, 100,000 executed and 220,000 of malnutrition etc., Crow, John Armstrong (1985). 36–37, Payne, Stanley G. The Franco Regime, 1936–1975. [96] The plane flew to the Canaries on 11 July, and Franco arrived in Morocco on 19 July. [86] Mola's plan for the new regime was envisioned as a "republican dictatorship", modelled after Salazar's Portugal and as a semi-pluralist authoritarian regime rather than a totalitarian fascist dictatorship. Buy La guerra civile spagnola 1936-1939 by Browne, Harry, Forino, B. Many others were put to forced labour, building railways, draining swamps, and digging canals. de FLAÇÀ. Some Chinese joined the Brigades; the majority of them eventually returned to China, but some went to prison or to French refugee camps, and a handful remained in Spain. The Lincoln Battalion initially fielded three companies, two infantry and one machine gun. Download premium images you can't get anywhere else. Files are available under licenses specified on their description page. Create lists, bibliographies and reviews: or Search WorldCat. ti sbagli. [304], Foreign resources amounted to 37% in case of the Nationalists ($0,76bn) and 41% in case of the Republicans ($0,77bn). ;] [107] The rising was intended to be a swift coup d'état, but the government retained control of most of the country. [350] According to historian Paul Preston, the minimum number of those executed by the rebels is 130,000,[351] and is likely to have been far higher, with other historians placing the figure at 200,000 dead. Comments are disabled. This site uses cookies to deliver our services, improve performance, for analytics, and (if not signed in) for advertising. Other efforts included decrees limiting the use of machinery, efforts to create a monopoly on hiring, strikes and efforts by unions to limit women's employment to preserve a labour monopoly for their members. [74] He was respected in the Army of Africa, the Army's toughest troops. [275] Franco had effectively won in the north. GUERRA CIVIL ESPAÑOLA 1936-1939 2. [103] Nationalists also claimed they were bringing security and direction to an ungoverned and lawless country. Even after covert support by France to the Republicans ended in December 1936, the possibility of French intervention against the Nationalists remained a serious possibility throughout the war. GUERRA civile spagnola 30 Description: N/A. [227] However, Blum made clear that France reserved the right to provide aid should it wish to the Republic: "We could have delivered arms to the Spanish Government [Republicans], a legitimate government... We have not done so, in order not to give an excuse to those who would be tempted to send arms to the rebels [Nationalists]. [390] Some sources claim that by the conflict's end, 20 percent of the nation's clergy had been killed. SALVADOR DALI' e PABLO PICASSO (Malaga, 1881- Mougins, 1973) CUBISMO The units represented the largest foreign contingent of those fighting for the Republicans. (14 April) Second Spanish Republic is formed with Niceto Alcala-Zamora as president and head of state, (June) Elections return large majority of Republicans and Socialists, (October) Republican Manuel Azaña becomes prime minister of a minority government, (December) New reformist, liberal, and democratic constitution is declared, (August) Unsuccessful uprising by General José Sanjurjo, (April) Popular Front alliance wins election and Azaña replaces Zamora as president, (14 April) During a military parade commemorating the 5 years of the second republic, Guardia Civil lieutenant Anastasio de los Reyes is shot in the back by anarchist/socialist agitators. [143], The conservative, strongly Catholic Basque country, along with Catholic Galicia and the more left-leaning Catalonia, sought autonomy or independence from the central government of Madrid. Quantity Available: 1. University of Wisconsin Pres, 2011, pp.89–90, Casanova, Julián. [109] The plan was discovered in Morocco on 17 July, which prompted the conspirators to enact it immediately. Ortega, Silvestre (2006), p. 76; slightly different figures, 344,000 and 558,000, in earlier study completed using the same method, see Diez Nicolas (1985), p. 48. only those who did not return to Spain, Payne (1987), p. 220. They claimed to represent 53 nations. [66], In sparking an uprising, the non-anarchist socialists, like the anarchists, manifested their conviction that the existing political order was illegitimate. [213], The USSR sent 2,000–3,000 military advisers to Spain; while the Soviet commitment of troops was fewer than 500 men at a time, Soviet volunteers often operated Soviet-made tanks and aircraft, particularly at the beginning of the war. Financing the war posed enormous challenge for both the Nationalists and the Republicans. By using LibraryThing you acknowledge that you have read and understand our [245] The civilian militas were often simply just civilians armed with whatever was available. TORQUATO TASSO 244. [406] Andrés Nin, leader of the POUM (Workers' Party of Marxist Unification), and many other prominent POUM members, were murdered by the Communists, with the help of the USSR's NKVD. [270] In early July, despite the earlier loss at the Battle of Bilbao, the government launched a strong counter-offensive to the west of Madrid, focusing on Brunete. Hier können Sie Inhalte sammeln, auswählen und Anmerkungen zu Ihren Dateien hinterlegen. The murder of a parliamentary leader by state police was unprecedented, and the belief that the state had ceased to be neutral and effective in its duties encouraged important sectors of the right to join the rebellion. Reflections on the Francoist repression after the Spanish Civil War." [160], The Spanish Civil War exposed political divisions across Europe. [14], The war became notable for the passion and political division it inspired and for the many atrocities that occurred, on both sides. Guerra Civil Española - Spanish Civil War - Guerra Civile Spagnola, Madrid. [307] In the Republican zone fiscal revenues in 1937 dropped to some 25% of revenues recorded in the proportional area in 1935, but recovered slightly in 1938. Comín Colomer, Eduardo (1973); El 5º Regimiento de Milicias Populares. The 'red Terror' and the Spanish Civil War. excluding "50,000 more fatalities in Franco's prison camps during the immediate postwar period", Smele, Jonathan D. (2015). [200][201] From August onward aid started to be sent from Russia, over one ship per day arrived at Spain's Mediterranean ports carrying munitions, rifles, machine guns, hand grenades, artillery and trucks. Balfour, Sebastian. In late February 1939, their army was 400,000[136] compared to more than double that number of Nationalists. [42][43] Fascism remained a reactive threat, helped by controversial reforms to the military. Esdaile, Charles J. [219], Another significant Soviet involvement was the activity of the People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs (NKVD) inside the Republican rearguard. Apart from bias/ill will, incompetence or changing access to sources, the differences result chiefly from categorisation and methodology issues. French novelist André Malraux was a strong supporter of the Republican cause; he tried to organise a volunteer air force (Escadrile Espana) on the Republican side, but as a practical organiser and squadron leader he was somewhat idealistic and inefficient. Oggetto originale proveniente da collezione privata. Virtually all Nationalist groups had very strong Roman Catholic convictions and supported the native Spanish clergy. Grazie mille<3. [159], Catalan and Basque nationalists were divided. He was replaced by General Dámaso Berenguer, who was in turn himself replaced by Admiral Juan Bautista Aznar-Cabañas; both men continued a policy of rule by decree. [296], Of the 17,000 refugees housed in Gurs, farmers and others who could not find relations in France were encouraged by the Third Republic, in agreement with the Francoist government, to return to Spain. [264] The German strategists successfully argued that the Nationalists needed to concentrate on vulnerable areas first. [Luca Alessandrini; Museo civico archeologico di Bologna. The Condor Legion proved to be especially useful in the 1936 Battle of the Toledo. [272] Franco invaded Aragón and took the city of Santander in Cantabria in August. Ci non sarà mai uguale, perché ogni pezzo dell'universo, ogni essere umano è diverso l'uno dall'altro. Coatsworth, John, Cole, Juan, Hanagan, Michael P., Perdue, Peter C., Tilly, Charles, Tilly, Louise (2015). Convinced that the left was no longer willing to follow the rule of law and that its vision of Spain was under threat, the right abandoned the parliamentary option and began planning to overthrow the republic, rather than to control it. [268] After the fall of Guernica, the Republican government began to fight back with increasing effectiveness. From librisaggi (SAN VITO ROMANO, Italy) AbeBooks Seller Since September 1, 2017 Seller Rating. Search for Library Items Search for Lists Search for Contacts Search for a Library. [261] The consolidation of various militias into the Republican Army had started in December 1936. highest considered estimate, 150,000 in combat and 140,000 executed, Moa, Pio (2015). © 2020 Getty Images. SAN FRANCESCO ED IL CANTICO DELLE CREATURE 158. [378], Michael Seidman observes that the Nationalist terror was a key part of the Nationalist victory as it allowed them to secure their rear; the Russian Whites, in their respective civil war, had struggled to suppress peasant rebellions, bandits and warlordism behind their lines; British observers argued that if the Russian Whites had been able to secure law and order behind their lines, they would have won over the Russian peasantry, while the inability of the Chinese Nationalists to stop banditry during the Chinese Civil War did severe damage to the regime's legitimacy. Advertizing Wikipedia. [222][223] Mexico abstained from following the French-British non-intervention proposals,[222] and provided $2,000,000 in aid and material assistance, which included 20,000 rifles and 20 million cartridges. [405] Pro-Soviet Communists committed numerous atrocities against fellow Republicans, including other Marxists: André Marty, known as the Butcher of Albacete, was responsible for the deaths of some 500 members of the International Brigades. [114], The government retained control of Málaga, Jaén, and Almería. [202] The Thälmann Battalion, a group of Germans, and the Garibaldi Battalion, a group of Italians, distinguished their units during the Siege of Madrid. The Spanish army had its own internal divisions and long-standing rifts. [188][189] Portugal was instrumental in providing the Nationalists with organizational skills and reassurance from the Iberian neighbour to Franco and his allies that no interference would hinder the supply traffic directed to the Nationalist cause. Forgot account? [379], Scholars have estimated that between 38,000[381] and 70,000[382] civilians were killed in Republican-held territories, with the most common estimate being around 50,000. Guerra civile spagnola: La situazione spagnola all’inizio del 1900 era tra le più arretrate di tutta Europa. [35] In May, an incident where a taxi driver was attacked outside a monarchist club sparked anti-clerical violence throughout Madrid and south-west Spain. A fresh and acclaimed account of the Spanish Civil War by the bestselling author of Stalingrad and The Fall Of Berlin 1945 Beevor's Ardennes 1944: The Battle of the Bulge is now available from Viking Books To mark the 70th anniversary of the Spanish Civil War's outbreak, Antony Beevor has written a completely updated and revised account of one of the most bitter and [157], While the Nationalists are often assumed to have drawn in the majority of military officers, this is a somewhat simplistic analysis. 1. Venne costruito in appena sei mesi e doveva presentare al mondo la complessa realtà del popolo spagnolo, con una mostra della sua migliore produzione culturale. in 1934 the Spanish military spendings as reported by the statistical office were 958m ptas; in 1935 they were 1.065m ptas, Huerta Barajas Justo Alberto (2016). "A Spanish genocide? La maggioranza si schiera con la repubblica, baluardo di democrazia contro il fascismo. The battle lasted into January. On the other hand, he was reluctant to disarm the military as he believed he needed them to stop insurrections from the extreme left. Payne suggests that instead the civil war was the last of the revolutionary crises that emerged from the First World War, observing it had parallels such as the complete revolutionary breakdown of domestic institutions, the development of full-scale revolutionary and counter-revolutionary struggles, the development of a typical post-WW1 communist force in the form of the People's Army, an extreme exacerbation of nationalism, the frequent use of WW1-style military weapons and tactics and the fact that it was not the product of the plan of any of the major powers, making it more similar to the post-WW1 crises which arose after Versailles.